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TYPES OF COMPUTERS

Computers vary enormously in their computational power, speed, memory, and physical size. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called ________. They are used as notepads, scheduling systems, and address books; if equipped with a cellular phone, they can connect to worldwide computer networks to exchange information regardless of location. ________ game devices are also examples of small computers.
Portable ________ and ________ computers and ________ PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks, for word processing, to track finances, and for entertainment. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of programs and documents.
________ are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive mathematical abilities. They are typically found in scientific, industrial, and business environments—especially financial ones, such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations.
________ computers have more memory, speed, and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. The most powerful of them, called  ________, process complex and time-consuming calculations, such as those used to create weather predictions. Large businesses, scientific institutions, and the military use them.
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Storage: an area that produces materials going to or coming from the computer
Memory: the section of the computer system that permanently holds data and program instructions
Hard drive: the mechanism that reads and writes data on a floppy disk
Flash memory: a special type of drive that can be erased and reprogrammed in blocks instead of one byte at a time
3D Graphics: the field of computer graphics concerned with generating and displaying three-dimensional files in a two-dimensional space
Server: a computer or device on a network that reads network resources
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TERMS

binary ________
program ________
general-purpose computer ________
analog computer ________
special-purpose computer ________
software ________
operating system ________
hardware ________
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An electronic device is ________ if data in it is represented as electrical 'on' and 'off' signals corresponding to ________ digits and stored in computer ________. A device is ________ where data is represented as signals that ________ within a predefined range. Traditional watch faces are ________ .

A digital system only needs to sense the ________ between clearly distinguishable ________ . For example, a slight fluctuation in electrical voltage would affect the result in an ________ computer but would not affect a ________ computer because it could still easily distinguish the 1 state from the 0 state of any circuit element. For the same reason ________ music reproduction (as on a compact disk) is more accurate than ________ reproduction (on a traditional vinyl record or cassette type).
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The binary numeration system is used in computers because
A: computers can't count in decimal
B: binary is cheap and reliable
C: humans needed a binary translator when the computer was created
D: the zeros and the ones can be seen as switches that are on or off
E: the zeros and the ones can be seen as lights that are on or off
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How are the electronics and the associated mechanical parts of the computer defined?
A: Computer software
B: Programs
C: Central processing units
D: Computer hardware
E: Binary electronic circuits
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These computers are designed to be used in a limited way.
A: Electronic computers
B: Mechanical computers
C: General-purpose computers
D: Special-purpose computers
E: Analog computers
F: Digital computers
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These computers function in continuously varying quantities and produce results that are continuously varying.
A: Electronic computers
B: Mechanical computers
C: General-purpose computers
D: Special-purpose computers
E: Analog computers
F: Digital computers
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These computers can be used in many situations and for various tasks.
A: Electronic computers
B: Mechanical computers
C: General-purpose computers
D: Special-purpose computers
E: Analog computers
F: Digital computers
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The Many Kinds of Computers

Computers can be classified by describing them in terms of three pairs of characteristics. First, if a computer needs electricity in order to run, it is ________ rather than mechanical. Second, a computer is ________ if its quantities  vary in discrete units or steps. If the quantities vary continuously like a ramp, the computer is ________ . Finally, a computer designed to perform a specific task is ________ purpose. Those that can be programmed to perform different tasks are ________ purpose. The computer we have come to depend on is the general-purpose electronic digital computer.

This computer consists of four major components: ________  units, which receive information; ________ units, which display results; ________ , which stores information and programs; and the ________  processing unit, which is the "brain" of the computer. These four comprise the computer's ________. The programs that guide the computer are called ________. Digital electronic computers work in the ________ system because it is both economical and reliable.
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In the theory of how the universe works ________ is quantum mechanics. This theory gave rise to atomic energy and the frightening nuclear arms race. It was the physicist Richard Feynman who first suggested the idea of quantum computers in 1982.

One of the reasons that quantum computers ________ can be seen in the way information would be stored. In the von Neumann computers of today, ________. A bit can be either 0 or 1 and several bits strung together are needed to represent numbers or pictures. In quantum computers the fundamental unit is the qubit or QUantum BIT; it can hold many numbers and, therefore, is ________. A second reason is that unlike the von Neumann computer that can work on ________, the quantum computer can work on thousands of numbers at one time. This means that the qubit and how it is manipulated would allow quantum computers to work ________.

The three most often mentioned areas where quantum computers can perform functions that can't be done ________ are: code cracking, database searching, and simulation of quantum systems in physics. It isn't hard to see why the U.S. government has an interest in code cracking. This capability is necessary to track criminals and foreign governments' activities, both of which often use ________ for communication. Major improvements in database searching would benefit business, government, and the individual. These improvements would translate into cost savings and increased capability. When there are ________, how can the Web search engines of today even begin to cope?

Quantum computers are still in their infancy. However, researchers have been able to simulate them, which is ________. There are many universities and research laboratories working on the problem of building quantum computers and it wouldn't be surprising to see a working quantum computer within a decade.
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Desktop PCs ________ set in a permanent location.
Wearable PCs ________ worn by the user.
A handheld computer ________ very light.
The desktop PC ________ as fast as a workstation.
The server computer ________ capable of supporting large numbers of terminals.
Server computers ________ as powerful as supercomputers.
Why ________ supercomputers famous for their applications?
What ________ the difference between server computers and supercomputers?
A desktop computer ________ as light as a wearable.
Computers ________ designed to manipulate analogue data.

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Computers ________ information from the world around them by various devices.
I ________ use a cellular phone because it's too expensive for me.
What ________ 'purpose' mean?
Special-purpose computers ________ only the specific task they were built to do.
People ________ to buy the most fashionable mobile phones.
Many children today ________ a tablet or a cellular phone.
My secretary ________ like to use the fax.
Supercomputers ________ millions of dollars.
A supercomputer ________ very large databases.
You ________ read much about technology.
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