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In 1796 Senefelder developed lithography, a printing technique that allows multiple reproductions of an image drawn with greasy crayon on a certain kind of limestone. The stone is wetted before printing. The printing ink is then retained in the spaces with the grease. The image area and the non-image area react differently. This technique expanded the range of what could be printed. At the Great Exhibition of  1851 a new method of printing was introduced : it was the chromolithography perfected in 1837. The printer first analyzed the colours within the original subject and then separated them into a series of printing plates and printed the component colours one by one. The talent of the artists who created the original designs, often in watercolour, and the skilled craftsman who traced the original art onto lithographic stones combined to create an extremely beautiful work. Many of the original art works had twenty or more colours and the coloured inks applied to the stones came together in perfect registration recreating hundreds or thousands of  wonderful duplicates of the original. Unfortunately all the credit went to the lithography firm and not to the artists. Lithography set type and layout free. Soon colour printing was used everywhere from art reproductions to advertising graphics. Admirers of fine typography were appalled that the design was done on a drawing board without any training in printing and type traditions.

1. Senefelder developed lithography in:
A: 1878
B: 1792
C: 1896
D: 1976
E: 1796
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10. The designer was a:
A: painter
B: painter without training
C: painter with training
D: painter of traditions
E: typographer without training in printing and type conditions  
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2. Lithography is a printing technique that allows multiple reproductions of an image drawn with greasy crayon on a certain kind of:
A: marble
B: granite
C: limestone  
D: sandstone
E: concrete
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3. The chromolithography was introduced in 1851 at:
A: The Exposition des Metiers
B: The Grand Exhibition
C: The Expo
D: The Great Exhibition    
E: The Industrial Exhibition
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4. In the chromolithography the printer first analyzed the colours within the original subject and then separated them into a series of:
A: paintings
B: watercolours
C: drawings
D: etchings
E: printing plates   
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5. Many of the original art works had:
A: no colours
B: 20 colours      
C: ten colours
D: black and white
E: 15 colours
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6. All the credit went to:
A: the lithography firm  
B: the painter
C: the engraver
D: the editor
E: the artist
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7. Lithograph set layout and type free:
A: type
B: layout
C: fonts
D: fonts and layouts
E: layout and type   
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8. Admirers of fine typography were:
A: happy
B: content
C: appalled   
D: surprised
E: sad
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9. The design was made on a:
A: canvas
B: wall
C: computer
D: drawing board
E: piece of wood
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1. The stone is wetted.
    The typographer ________ the stone.

2. The printing ink is retained in the spaces with the grease.
    The spaces with the grease ________ the printing ink.

3. A new method of printing was introduced.
    The Great Exhibition ________ a new method of printing.

4. Colour printing was used everywhere from art reproductions to advertising graphics.
    Art reproductions and advertising graphics ________ colour printing.

5. The design was done on a drawing board.
    The typographer ________ the design on a drawing board.

Now transform the following active sentences into passive ones.

6. In 1796 Senefelder developed lithography.
    In 1796 lithography ________ by Senefelder.

7. This technique expanded the range of what could be printed.
    The range of what could be printed ________ by this technique.

8. The printer analyzed the colours.
    The colours ________ by the printer.

9. The printer printed the component colours one by one.
    The component colours ________ one by one.

10. Lithography set type and layout free.
      Type and layout ________ free by lithography.
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1. My cousin has just finished university and would like to start up a business in Italy but there's too much ________ tape.
2. When the boss told Jim about the promotion he was really surprised. The news came out of the ________.
3. I was ________ with envy when Sally showed me her prize of Designer of the Year.
4. There were so many problems to face. The situation wasn't simply black and ________.
5. My dad was so angry with my brother that he was ________ in the face.
6. The company made brochures which in the end cost so much that now it is in the ________.
7. There were so many appliances going at the same time that they caused a ________ out.
8. The town council gave us the ________ light to organize the exhibition.
9. Elizabeth was tickled ________ that her design for the packaging of a fruit juice had been chosen by the company.
10. I really wish I could go to the USA but I'm sure it'll happen once in a ________ moon.
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